Elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of ABC transporters involved in the transport of various substances inside and outside cells is extremely important in biology, but until now, research has been limited to the study of extremely small numbers of ABC transporters involved in small molecule transport. On July 7, a research group led by Associate Professor Wataru Hashimoto, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, and Professor Emeritus Kosaku Murata (currently Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Science and Technology, Setsunan University) elucidated the entire structure and transport mechanism of the macromolecular transport ABC transporter. bottom.In recent years, technology for producing biofuel from macromolecules such as alginic acid has been attracting attention, and the results of this research are expected to be applied to such technology.
Sphingomonas bacterium (A1 strain) isolated from soil grows from alginic acid, which is a component of slimy seaweed and kelp, as a carbon source.When utilizing macromolecules such as alginic acid, most microorganisms secrete degrading enzymes out of the cell in advance, break them down into smaller molecules, and then take them up.Bacterial A1 strains, on the other hand, swallow whole macromolecules without secreting degrading enzymes out of the cell.For the first time, the research group has clarified the three-dimensional structure and function of the macromolecular transport ABC transporter that enables this swallowing.This study has discovered a novel structure not found in the ABC transporters studied so far.
The production of bioethanol from alginic acid using the bacterial A1 strain has already been successful, but this time, the structure of the alginic acid transport ABC transporter has been determined, which makes it possible to enhance and control its transport function and biofuel. Is expected to improve productivity.It is also being considered to transplant the transport system of the bacterial A1 strain to other useful microorganisms (called organ transplantation, which is equivalent to human organ transplantation).The world's strongest dioxin-degrading bacteria have been successfully bred by organ transplantation, and by applying the results of this research, it may be possible to create "super bacteria" that strongly decompose various environmentally harmful substances. Hmm.
Source:[Kyoto University] Establishment of new technology that enables large-scale modification of bacteria-Elucidation of the entire structure and transport mechanism of macromolecular transport ABC transporters-