The Shintaro Yamada D&I Foundation will conduct a survey from January to February 2024 at universities across the country that have introduced "women's quotas" in science and engineering faculties, regarding the background, purpose, and effects of the introduction of "women's quotas." We received responses from 1 universities, including one school that plans to introduce the system after 2. Additionally, interviews were conducted with some universities that have introduced the ``women's quota'' regarding their specific initiatives and results.

 According to the survey, of the 23 universities that have already introduced ``female quota'' entrance exams, 2020 did so before 3, and 2023 universities have (or are planning to) introduce it after 21. The background lies in the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's notification in June 2022, ``Implementation Guidelines for Selection of University Admissions in 6,'' which encourages efforts to ``select people with diverse backgrounds,'' and particularly in ``Science and Engineering Fields.'' This is because "women in Japan" were mentioned.

 As a result, the movement to introduce entrance examinations for women has rapidly spread among many universities, and survey response data shows that the number of universities that will introduce entrance examinations for women from 2023 onwards has increased rapidly. On the other hand, it will be important to continue monitoring what kind of impact the introduction of the "women's quota" will have in the future, especially what changes it will bring about in the advancement of women in STEM fields.

 The most anticipated effects of universities introducing quotas for women were: increasing diversity and revitalization of faculty (87.5%), attracting talented female students (83.3%), and improving gender balance in faculty (79.2%) were the most common. This suggests that there is a strong expectation that by introducing a ``female quota'' universities will attract high-quality female students and improve the gender balance and diversity of the educational environment.

 On the other hand, only about 3% of female students who entered the school had expectations regarding an environment conducive to learning (both hard and soft) and support after admission, and these expectations remained as secondary effects. It is hoped that future initiatives will consider these factors in detail, and progress will be made in creating an environment where female students can have a fulfilling learning experience.

 Regarding the status of applications for the 2024 "female quota" entrance exam, of the 5 universities, excluding 19 universities that are not open to the public, 12 universities had more applicants than their capacity or had the same number of applicants, and 7 universities had fewer applicants than their capacity. All universities with lower enrollment numbers will be introducing the system from the 2024 entrance exams, and this is thought to be due to a lack of public relations activities such as high school visits and pamphlets, as well as problems with the number of female slots.

 There were also differences in results depending on when the ``female quota'' entrance exam was introduced. At universities that introduced entrance exams before the 2020 entrance exam, the ratio of female students in engineering faculties went from 2016% to 8% in the eight years since the introduction of the 10 entrance exam, and after graduation, about half of women go on to graduate school and are highly motivated. Concrete results were achieved, such as female students contributing to research.

 On the other hand, many universities that introduced the system after 2023 have not yet seen concrete results, but as originally expected, they have succeeded in attracting talented female students, and from 2025 onward they will introduce a "female quota" entrance exam. Some universities are planning to expand the number of departments and majors eligible for this in their engineering faculties and increase the number of slots for women.

 Regarding the reaction from both inside and outside universities to the introduction of the ``female quota'' entrance exam, 45.5% of universities received negative comments, accounting for approximately half of the universities. In order to deal with prejudice and reverse discrimination, it is necessary to clearly communicate the purpose and necessity of the system to society and take measures to prevent the stigmatization of female students. The complete version of the 2024 Survey on the Status of Women's Capacity in Science and Engineering Faculties is available on the foundation's official website.

24 universities that responded (in alphabetical order):
Aichi University of Technology / Oita University / Osaka Institute of Technology / Kanagawa Institute of Technology / Kanazawa University / Kitami Institute of Technology / Kumamoto University / Kochi University of Technology / Sanyo-Onoda City Yamaguchi Tokyo University of Science / Shibaura Institute of Technology / Shimane University / Daido University / University of Electro-Communications / Tokyo Institute of Technology / Tokyo University of Science / Tohoku Institute of Technology / University of Toyama / Nagoya University / Niigata Institute of Technology / College of the Human Environment / University of Hyogo (Faculty of Engineering) / Fukui Institute of Technology / University of Yamanashi / University of Miyazaki

Reference: [Shintaro Yamada D&I Foundation] Survey on the actual status of "female quotas" in science and engineering faculties 2024 - Current status and prospects of the "female quota" system at 24 universities as interpreted from the questionnaire

University Journal Online Editorial Department

This is the online editorial department of the university journal.
Articles are written by editorial staff who have a high level of knowledge and interest in universities and education.