The world's first serum biomarker that predicts the effect of immune checkpoint therapy (anti-PD-1 antibody therapy) on non-small cell lung cancer through joint research by Kawasaki Medical School, Nagasaki University, Hiroshima University, Tokyo University, and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. Identified.

 Immune checkpoint therapy (anti-PD-1 antibody therapy) is a therapy that has been expanded to many cancer types since it was developed by Professor Tasuku Honjo of Kyoto University, who won the Nobel Prize in 2018. ..However, due to the limited and expensive effects of a single agent, biomarkers have been sought to predict patients for whom this treatment is effective.

 The researchers have continued to study cancer antigens that are specifically expressed in cancer cells and the patient's immune response to them.This time, we focused on the XAGE1 antigen specifically expressed in lung adenocarcinoma and the NY-ESO-1 antigen expressed in squamous cell lung cancer, and measured antibodies in patient serum against these antigens.

 As a result, of the 1 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received anti-PD-75 antibody therapy, 65% of the patients with the antibody responded.On the other hand, only 19% of patients without the antibody responded, and there was a significant difference between the two, so this antibody is useful for testing to predict the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy. It was suggested that it would be a good biomarker.Interestingly, the antibody was said to decrease with the effect, and it was found to be useful for monitoring the effect.
 The advantage of this serum biomarker is that it is simple, inexpensive, and can be repeatedly tested quickly (within 20 minutes).In addition, it is a factor completely independent of other biomarkers, and it can be expected that the effect prediction will be more accurate by the combined test.

 In the future, if it reaches general practical use, it will be possible to select effective patients, predict the prognosis, and set the treatment period, which will lead to reduction of the physical and economic burden on patients.Further, if the indication is expanded to immune checkpoint therapy for other cancers, it will greatly contribute to the reduction of medical expenses in the world.

Paper information:[Journal of Thoracic Oncology] Serum Antibody against NY-ESO-1 and XAGE1 Antigens Potentially Predicts Clinical Responses to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (PDF)

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